Monitoring and controlling of substations is an important task for supplying healthy power to the consumers in this automated era. But due to infrastructure of the distribution grids (substations) & lack of automation systems that monitors the critical conditions at substations, the risk of blackouts, brownouts and fire are rapidly increasing. Substations consist of different electronic components like transformers, circuit breakers, relays etc. The transformer fluid leaks or internal insulation breakdown cause overheating that leads to failures. The traditional method includes periodic manual checking of the system which is time consuming and with very low accuracy. Also the substations in the rural areas are even more difficult to monitor manually and hence requires more time to take respective actions.
Distribution transformers have a long service life if they are operated under good and crated conditions. However, their life is significantly reduced if they are overloaded, resulting in unexpected failures & loss of supply to a large number of customers thus effecting system reliability. Overloading and ineffective cooling of transformers are the major causes of failure in distribution transformers. Distribution transformers are currently monitored manually where a person periodically visits a transformer site for maintenance and records parameter of importance. This type of monitoring cannot provide information about occasional overloads and overheating of transformer oil and windings. All these factors can significantly reduce transformer life.
The main aim of this system is distribution transformer monitoring & controlling through IOT. Also, it sends SMS to a central database via the GSM modem for further processing. The idea of on-line monitoring system mixes a global service mobile (GSM) Modem, with chip micro controller and different sensors
GSM/GPRS/SMS/ enabled wireless DCU for HT/LT HV/LV power transformer & sub station automation, operation, condition monitoring. We get all the electrical parameters of transformer in the central control room.
sub station automation, along with energy parameters we can monitor status of various instruments installed with the transformer in the sub station. SMS alerts can be set for Hi/Low values of various energy parameters, winding temperature, oil temperature, oil leakage by installing their corresponding sensors along with the DCU
A large capacity power transformers, the wireless DCU gets digital signals from relay. It operates in case there is slight over loading, slow oil leaks and arcing due to rapid gas accumulation inside the tank. As soon as the DCU gets a digital signal from relay, it sends an SMS alert at pre-defined mobile numbers also on CMS pop-up incating the fault type. This helps the concerned engineers and maintenance staff to know the type of fault before going to site for inspection/repair. They can pre-plan the tools & tackles before going to site. This helps in minimizing the downtime and restoration of the power transformer sub station after taking the suitable measures.
Whenever the oil goes down a pre-set level, the switch send a signal to the wireless DCU which in turn alerts the concerned engineers and maintenance staff through SMS alert and simultaneously sends command to CMS.
So through wireless communication, sub station automation complete monitoring and operation of an HT/LT HV/LV transformer can be done from a centralized control room. A number of sub station transformers installed at different locations can be monitored & controlled through wireless application under Wireless Sub Station Automation and brought an common application through cloud.
Apparent, active and reactive power
Operating voltage and load current
Time Scheduling of Building Systems
Digital circuit states of Buchholz relay, oil level of main tank
Top oil temperature
Aging rate and lifetime consumption
Partial Discharge (PD)
Over currents and short-circuit currents
Emergency overloading time
OLTC position, number of switching operations
Sum of switched load current of tap changer
Duration of tap changing, switching time
Oil temperature in OLTC compartment
Web server on monitoring IED
Data storage (life time storage of transformer)
It can able to detect the faults due to over current, over voltage, increased temperature at real time.
Monitoring multiple transformers sitting in an office is possible.
Pre-fault condition is easily detected and cleared at same time to avoid system failure.
Fault monitoring requires less time also use of Wi-Fi gives most accurate, fast response.
This type of monitoring protects transformer & overall system so system reliability and stability increases.
This type of monitoring provide significant benefits for utility consumers as ideal power supply can be possible which is free from fault and losses.